Author’s Guideline

GUIDELINES FOR AUTHORS (revised: November 2009)


Author Info

Instruction to authors

“Environment & We an International Journal of Science & Technology” accepts articles from any source on the understanding that they are the original work of the authors named, and that they are being offered only to the EWIJST.

Since the Journal serves a multidisciplinary readership, articles should serve multidisciplinary or multi-institutional areas of interest, and authors are requested to write their papers and reports in a manner and style that is intelligible to specialists and nonspecialists alike. Articles are judged by referees at the discretion of the Editor.

Various kinds and categories of article are welcome. (Please consult a recent issue of the Journal for examples.) Research communications are of three kinds: Research Letters, Research Articles, and Review Articles. Research Letters are shorter reports (normally no longer than 1500–2000 words of text), and should be up-to-date accounts of interesting and noteworthy scientific developments. Although these reports may be concerned with very particular advances, they should be of wider than specialist interest. Research Articles are longer papers (normally no more than 6 000 words in length). Here the criteria of intelligibility and wider interest are strictly applied. Review Articles (up to 6 000 words long) should be up-to-date surveys of important current developments in science. Preference is given to concise, reader-friendly submissions.


Submission of manuscripts for consideration

Enquiries: Potential contributors are invited, before formal submission, to enquire (preferably by e-mail) whether or not a particular article would be of interest, or to obtain advice about the way in which a manuscript should be prepared for submission.


Covering letter: When submitting a manuscript, authors should furnish a separate covering letter with the following information: the name(s) and title(s) of the author(s); the position, affiliation, and contact details of each author; and the author to whom all correspondence should be addressed. In addition, authors are encouraged to provide the names and full contact details (including e-mail addresses) of 4 or 5 potential referees to evaluate the work. The covering letter should also indicate briefly the significance of the work being reported. It should include a declaration that the research material in the paper submitted to the Journal has neither been published elsewhere nor is being considered elsewhere for publication. It should also include a paragraph summarizing briefly the nature of the contribution made by each of the authors listed, along the lines of the following example:

Authors' contributions: J.K. was the project leader. L.M.N. and A.B. were responsible for experimental and project design. L.M.N. performed most of the experiments. P.R. made conceptual contributions and S.T., U.V. and C.D. performed some of the experiments. S.M. and V.C. prepared the samples and calculations were performed by C.S. J.K. and U.V. wrote the manuscript.

Finally, the corresponding author should confirm that each named author has read and approved the manuscript submitted for consideration.


Electronic format: Manuscripts for consideration should be submitted in Microsoft Word electronic format (as an e-mail attachment) to


Presentation of content

Manuscripts should use single spacing, and Times New Roman, fonts size 12, with each page clearly numbered. (Contributors should keep presentation consistent and simple, and avoid using a range of type styles and sizes, special fonts, or elaborate formatting.) The first line of each paragraph should be indented. Tables and figures should be presented just before the Reference section, and captions should be presented together. Tables and figures (including photographs) should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals.

The opening paragraph of each research paper should make clear the purpose and main conclusions of the work being reported. All submissions should be concise and reader-friendly, take proper account of previous relevant literature, and avoid undue repetition of facts or experimental methods already in the public record. A short abstract (up to 200 words), written concisely in simple words and phrases, must accompany each research article and letter.

Authors submitting a paper for consideration should consult the notes below as well as a recent issue of the Journal, and note and follow the house style of presentation.


Abbreviations should be used sparingly, and should be defined at their first use unless they are very familiar (e.g. DNA, E. coli). The significance of statistical tests should be written in the form P < 0.001, or ‘n.s.’ for ‘not significant’. ‘Degrees of freedom’ is abbreviated as ‘d.f.’; ‘standard error’ is abbreviated as ‘s.e.’ (and ‘standard error of the mean’ as ‘s.e.m.’); ‘coefficient of variation’ is abbreviated as ‘CV’.


Units should conform to the SI convention and be abbreviated accordingly. Metric units and their international symbols are used throughout, as is the decimal point (not the decimal comma), and the 24-hour clock (e.g. 08:00; 17:25). When radiocarbon dates are quoted they should be accompanied by a laboratory index number and a statement of probable error. Prefixes for mass numbers should precede the symbols of the elements (e.g. 14C).


Spacing and punctuation: There should be one space (not two) between sentences; one space before unit terms (e.g. 5 kg, 5 cm, 5 mmol, 5 days); no space before % or ° (e.g. 5%, 23°C, 26°10’S). Thousands/millions are marked with a space, not a comma (e.g. 1 000, 1 000 000). Ranges are expressed with an extended hyphen, not with a short hyphen (e.g. 3–5 km).


Dates, italics, and spelling: Dates are written in the following style: 13 July 1973. Phrases within the text that are not English (for example, et al.) should be italicised. The British (not the American) spelling convention is followed.



Authors are responsible for the accuracy, layout, and presentation of their references, and for compiling the typescript in the Journal's house style. Footnotes and acknowledgements should not be included among the references. ‘Personal communication’, ‘unpublished observations’, and ‘manuscript in preparation’ should be incorporated in the text. Papers accepted for publication in a (named) journal may be cited, but not those merely submitted for publication.


References to the literature must be indicated in the text by indicating the last name of the first author and the year of publication, for instance, (Hassan, 1997), (Otaki and Ohgaki, 1998), (Fattoruso et al., 2002). References should not be set as footnotes or endnotes as defined in MS Word.


Articles in periodicals are cited by full title and inclusive pagination. Titles of periodicals are abbreviated in accordance with the World List of Scientific Periodicals. References provided in manuscript submissions should be presented, formatted, and punctuated in the style of the following example:

Agbenin, J.O., Goladi, J.T., 1997. Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics under continuous cultivation as influenced by savanna of northern Nigeria. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 36, 17-24.

References to quotations, chapters or articles in books should follow the style of the following examples:

Lovegrove B., 1999. In The Living Deserts of Southern Africa, chap. 1, pp. 40-41. Fernwood Press, Cape Town.

Mason S.J., Tyson P.D., 1999. The occurrence and predictability of droughts over southern Africa. In Drought, a Global Assessment, vol. 1, ed. D.A. Wilhite, pp. 113-134. Routledge, London.

De Villiers C., Visser W., 1998. Survey of Environmental Reporting in SA, 5th edn, p. 93. KPMG, Cape Town.

References to published conference papers should provide details as follows:

Moll E.J., 1994. The origin and distribution of fairy rings in Namibia. In Proc. 13th Plenary Meeting AETFAT, Zomba, Malawi, eds J.H. Seyani and A.C. Chikuni, pp. 1203-1209. National Herbarium and Botanic Gardens of Malawi, Zomba.

Thesis references should be presented as follows:

Kumar, P., 2004. Energy consumption pattern for rural villages at different altitudes of Himachal Pradesh. M.Sc. Thesis, IARI, New Delhi, India.

Newspaper references follow the example below:

Kirk P. 2001. New AIDS battle looms. Mail & Guardian (Johannesburg), 11-17 May, 4.

References to reports available online should be presented as follows:

Department of Science and Industry 2007. National Research and Industrial Policy. Online at:

Climate Change Synthesis Report 2007.  Summary for Policymakers: An Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Online from:

Fischer, G., Shah, M., and Velthuizen, H. 2002. Climate Change and Agricultural Vulnerability. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis: Laxenburg, Austria. Online at:


Preparation and submission of diagrams

New printing technology requires updated specifications for preparing diagrams, tables, graphs, and other visual material for reproduction in the Journal. Authors should pay special attention to the details below (and to enquire about special needs as necessary).



Electronic diagrams and illustrations

· Artwork may be supplied in electronic format. Corel-DRAW (version 8, 9, or 10) is ideal for printing purposes (but line thickness should be set by the operator, as defaults are often too fine for reduction). If Excel diagrams are submitted, each must be placed on a separate page in Microsoft Word. Black-and-white line drawings should ideally be supplied at 1 200 dpi (but no less than 600 dpi). Authors must specify in which programme diagrams have been drawn.

· Photographs and artwork in colour must be supplied at high resolution (at least 300 dpi) for good quality reproduction, as separate files, in TIFF (preferably) or JPEG format.

· No illustrations saved in the native formats of specialised statistical packages should be submitted.

No specialised fonts should be used in labelling. Use Arial or Helvetica. (If a specialised font is unavoidable in material sent electronically, supply the font itself as well, in TrueType or in PostScript Type 1 format.)

If an author is unable to supply artwork in the appropriate form, and additional Journal time is needed to modify diagrams for publication, that time will be charged to the author (fees are available on enquiry).


Colour reproduction: Colour printing is expensive and should be used only when essential. The additional cost involved will be charged to the author (details available on enquiry).


Final accepted and updated manuscripts must be submitted in Microsoft Word. Figure captions and tables should not be incorporated in the main text but set out on separate pages. A covering letter must confirm that the final manuscript has been approved by all the cited authors.



Authors will receive provisional page proofs electronically as PDF files; these must be returned promptly to the Editor (within 48h) to avoid delays in publication. Substantial changes made at proof stage will be charged to the author.


Electronic PDF

An electronic PDF of article will be sent to the corresponding author after publication.


Reprints and Open Access (Not Necessary for Publication)

If the author require reprints and open access the additional cost involved will be charged to the author (details available on enquiry). Order will be given at the time of proofs.


Strict adherence to these guidelines and authorial conformity to the Journal’s house style streamline the processing of manuscripts, expedite publication, and enable the EWIJST to continue publishing research papers. SEDINDIA member can publish their papers without charging page fees.


This set of guidelines is available on or from the Editor (on request). Electronic submissions to be sent by e-mail to or Manuscripts for consideration only sent by mail.

Text Box: Environment & We 
An International Journal of Science & Technology
 ISSN: 0975-7112 (Print) 				ISSN: 0975-7120 (Online)